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GERMANY - DEUTSCHLAND
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Logical Operators: Use ALLCAPS for boolean operators.
GUIDE TO GOOGLE SEARCH OPERATORS
AND conjunction (logical and) (must be capitalized)
OR inclusive disjunction (logical or) (must be capitalized) The pipe symbol | also works.
NOT - negation (exclusion) (logical not). The minus symbol - also works.
(searchterm) Parenthesis () indicate order of precedence
Order of Precedence: parentheses, conjunction, disjunction, negation.
Quoted Literals: Use double quotes for quoted literals.
"" e.g. "searchterm" should return only the exact word searchterm.
allintext: searchterm is also a quoted literal operator.
Files of a Type
Filetype:extension e.g. searchterm filetype:pdf
Filetypes which may be specified include:
pdf, ps, wk1, wk2, wk3, wk4, wk5, wki, wks, wku, wp, mw, xls, ppt, doc, wks, wps, wdb, wri, rtf, swf, ans, txt.
No space may occur between filetype: and the extension!
filetype:doc works. Filetype: doc fails.
Site, Author, and Title Searches:
+ The plus sign includes any stopword.
Stopwords are common words such as "the" "a" "an". Stopwords are normally not included in searches. Stopwords can be forced to be included in your search by using a quoted as a literal. A search for "Knight's Gambit to Fool's Mate" would include "to" in the search. A search for
Knight's Gambit +to Fool's Mate would also include "to".
Google Search Operators
Stemming, wild cards, proximity, and quoted literal searches are all currently broken or in various states of neglect and disrepair on google. However, these operators may well function on other search engines and google or google may reintroduce the following as effective operators.
Stemming (root expansion)
Unquoted terms are automatically expanded (stemmed) to cover variations.
Thus, bar exam should also return bar examination.
Quoted search terms (literals) are not expanded (stemmed).
Thus "bar exam" should not return "bar examination".
~ includes synonyms e.g. theor~ would return theoretical, theorize, theorise, theory, and all expansions of the root theor.
Wild Cards (infix)
. The full stop (dot) has been reported as a character wild card. E.g., "search t.rm"
* Word wild card. Unlike the character wild card . dot, the word wild card asterisk * seems unbroken. The world wild card * can be used for proximity search e.g.
"eric * engle" AND "engle * eric"
will return results where eric is within 1 word of Engle
"searchterm * * searchterm"
* The wild card word, *, is intransitive and may act as a proximity operator. Closer results are returned first (i.e. results within 1 word are returned ahead of results within 10 words).
Combining quoted literals with wild card, parentheses, AND can approximate searches within e.g. 5 words
"eric * * * * * engle" should return eric within exactly five words of engle
"eric * engle" AND "eric * * engle" AND "eric * * * engle" should return eric within three words of engle where eric precedes engle.
NEAR - sometimes people report "near" as a valid google operator - I have never had luck with it and if it even exists is undocumented or broken.
AROUND searchterm1 AROUND(number) searchterm2 was an undocumented proximity operator.
It too appears to be broken.
example: "how to pass the bar exam" AROUND(20) "eric engle"
|About the author:
Dr.Jur. Eric Engle, JD, DEA, LL.M. has studied law in the U.S.A., (JD St. Louis) France (DEA, Paris II; DEA Paris X) and Germany (LL.M., Dr.Jur. Bremen, LL.M. Humboldt). A Fulbright law specialist, has taught law in France, Germany, Estonia, Russia, Ukraine and Bosnia. Dr. Engle has authored several dozen law review articles published in peer reviewed journals around the world.
(definitions in English
with equivalent terms
in German, French,
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